The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment

Veritasium
196 000 Показвания 3,6 млн.

If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Коментари

  1. Caitlyn Foster
    Caitlyn Foster
    преди 6 часа

    Technically this is adaption, not evolution: the bacteria is adapting to be able to survive the poison, not turning into something other than the bacteria it was at the start. At the beginning and end, it’s still the same kind of bacteria, just with the ability to endure the greater concentration. Not true evolution.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 часа

      @Caitlyn Foster "How would it turning into something other than bacteria disprove evolution?" Because that would be a descendant that isn't a member of its parent's clade, which is a fundamental violation of descent with modification and monophyly that are absolutely inviolable under evolutionary theory. "certain species developed into other species?" Certain populations diverge and accumulate differences. Species are labels assigned by people. Absent people assigning the labels, there can be no species. But the populations would still be there, and they'd still be every bit as different. However, the extent of those differences is highly correlated to people assigning different species labels to those populations. But at absolutely no point can descendants NOT be descended from their parents, because that's not possible. So if the parents are bacteria, ALL of the descendants MUST be bacteria as well. Doesn't matter if they are 12' long marine herbivores, they'd still be bacteria.

    2. Caitlyn Foster
      Caitlyn Foster
      преди 4 часа

      @Crispr CAS9 How would it turning into something other than bacteria disprove evolution? Isn’t the theory of evolution based on the idea that over time, certain species developed into other species? Would you have preferred I used the word “species”? Word choice is not a big deal. You are nitpicking. If you want the scientific word choice, it’s simple enough to change “kind” to “species.” Most people would understand that.

    3. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 4 часа

      "Technically this is adaption, not evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "turning into something other than the bacteria" Turning into something other than bacteria would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution only serves to underline your ignorance of the subject. "it’s still the same kind of bacteria" 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity.

  2. binslagala
    binslagala
    преди 7 часа

    Shouldn't they wear gloves? :D Awesome video !

  3. Rasmus Odgaard
    Rasmus Odgaard
    преди 7 часа

    So 42 is the universe...and everything?

  4. JR HsN.2
    JR HsN.2
    преди 8 часа

    Hello Monkey guys 😂

  5. delta444
    delta444
    преди 8 часа

    I love science ❤ It's like being a part in the evolution of knowledge

  6. Jim Harris
    Jim Harris
    преди 9 часа

    So it metabolizes citrate? yes. But it's still E coli? You confirmed it? yes. Okay. Let me know when it doesn't pass an E coli identity test.

  7. Sadique Khan
    Sadique Khan
    преди 13 часа

    So when it will start speaking?

  8. Haz
    Haz
    преди 14 часа

    Please make sure you close that lab door tightly we don’t want new stuff coming out from labs 🧫

  9. JC Wood
    JC Wood
    преди 15 часа

    Replace the word evolution with adaptation please. Because science. Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 14 часа

      "Replace the word evolution with adaptation please." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. " Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this." Every insertion and duplication mutation adds information by definition. The Ara-3 strain discussed in this video has such a mutation, as demonstrated by sequencing.

  10. Equilibrium
    Equilibrium
    преди 20 часа

    Can someone help me understand? Because it doesn't make sense to me.

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      @Equilibrium ok, i'll try to remember to do it tomorrow, but my brain is turning off.

    2. Equilibrium
      Equilibrium
      преди 20 часа

      @zhou sei The video is long, full of information that I couldn't retain quite as good although watching it over and over. So i guess the whole thing, but you can give me a quick summary

    3. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 20 часа

      observe e coli, new proteins pop up... some are helpful, others not so much. or what part was difficult, i don't wanna limit anything here...

  11. Steven Schupak
    Steven Schupak
    преди 23 часа

    It'll be an experiment in evolution when one of the cultures becomes a duck and waddles away. Until then is an experiment in adaptation.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 часа

      @Steven Schupak "included a model where ducks come from the same things as bacteria" So you think you can be your brother's father and fail basic logic. Thanks for playing, learn to read.

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 3 часа

      @Steven Schupak "Evolution is more like saying the father didn't have brothers but he gave birth to organisms seperate in nature from himself and his siblings. that's evolution." absolutely false. this, i believe, is the crux of your misunderstanding. if you care, i think i can try and break it down. let's use rabbits as an example: two silver rabbits reproduced, giving us some new baby rabbits, aka kittens (seriously, they are called that). let's say one of those kittens develops albinism from a new genetic mutation; snowy conditions, our albino guy gets that camo, and all of his brothers and sisters get eaten. our guy finds a new mate somewhere, and passes along this trait to 25% of his offspring; the rest may or may not pass on the recessive gene (we are going real simple here, punnett square summoning), but let's say a local population of white rabbits starts showing. well, it's still the same species of rabbit, only it's got a new subspecies of very white rabbits. let's keep this going for tens of thousands of generations. let's assume there is a big geographic feature that now keeps the white rabbits separate from the silver haired ones. the mutations are stacking up, and now we have this population in this particular region of rabbit that is white, and can no longer reproduce with the silver ones. we've no choice but to recategorize them, now this particular white rabbit is its own species (remember, naming is a human invented convention, as pointed out by crispr). keep this going for millions of generations, you're gonna have a lot of changes. maybe the silver haired ones died out, completely extinct, and yet there was a population of golden haired, long eared rabbit that somehow made its way down to the desert; the white rabbit and the golden rabbit share a common ancestor, the silver haired rabbit that is now gone (sadly)... and yet they don't really look like eachother all that much, and cannot mate with each other. a fish cannot give birth to a mammal, this is NOT evolution. a fish gives birth to a fish which gives birth to a fish... multiplied by countless generations, the mutations stack up (some are not even useful, some are harmful... mutations aren't always beneficial), and now we have a fish that can handle a little time out of the water better than his broskies. the scenery changes, the water dries up all over the place (think billabong) and leaves pools, but these fish have an advantage; they can chill and wait for the water to come back; maybe given enough generations, they can wiggle their way to a new source of water... do some more hundreds of thousands of generation, and the fish can just walk all over the place, and maybe even pull oxygen from the air (gills are like lungs in a way, in that they gather oxygen for the fish, which is mixed in the water as tiny air bubbles). is it really that hard to believe that an analogous series of events over countless years could lead from fish to mammal? cause the evidence is overwhelmingly pointing to you being descended from a fish.

    3. Steven Schupak
      Steven Schupak
      преди 3 часа

      @Crispr CAS9 lastly, you still have to reconsile the first one then the planet which gives the condition then the universe which sets those conditions. At the end of the line there's a point where everything comes from nothing and the nothing becomes everything. I just call it God and go about my day 🙏 .. 🤷‍♂️

    4. Steven Schupak
      Steven Schupak
      преди 3 часа

      @Crispr CAS9 also you're right I'm being a little disingenuous. I'm OK with evolution to some extent.. but I don't think it's what you think nor do I find it fundamentally sound but it's getting closer even with the liberalities and presumed assumptions you have to accept to make it coherent.. it may be close to something resembling truth, but I do belive in challenging it for the sake of it becuase there's alot of gaps to fill and I'd hate to see a generation or more so convinced by thier assumptions that they fail to see the failings. Galileo.

    5. Steven Schupak
      Steven Schupak
      преди 4 часа

      @Crispr CAS9 lol your argument against a duck coming from bacteria included a model where ducks come from the same things as bacteria... maybe I'll just change one point to fit the academia better, it's not a duck, but a previously nonexistant "kafigemadoodle"... and it dosent waddle, it strides away. There fixed it. 🙂 So you can focus on the probability problems. JS. At what point do bacteria stop becoming other things? Do clarify, becuase all things evolve right? Except for the things that don't.. 🤨 (stasis). Your references to brothers and fathers aren't coherent. That's a time travel argument. Evolution is more like saying the father didn't have brothers but he gave birth to organisms seperate in nature from himself and his siblings. that's evolution. Although in reality this is reference to the precambrian explosion, which presents a few problems for that thesis. Where all the "things b-y" appeared suddently fully formed into what sets the models for all future incarnations in hugely diverse numbers and types within a relatively short period.

  12. Michael
    Michael
    преди 23 часа

    This is really cool, but let's all hope those hyper mutant e coli don't accidentally get released into the wild from that building being destroyed by a natural disaster or something.

  13. Luciano Stabel
    Luciano Stabel
    преди ден

    I read about this experiment on Dawkin's The Greatest Show On Earth book. This experiment is astonishingly great. Your video doesn't fall behind, great content. Thank you so much for that.

  14. Islam Mokhtar
    Islam Mokhtar
    преди ден

    Can you make a relativity-based explanation of the tides in oceans?!

  15. Crypto Secutiry
    Crypto Secutiry
    преди ден

    The fresh ping preoperatively suck because speedboat routinely squeal through a erratic judge. chubby, scattered attraction

  16. Beaman Surchit
    Beaman Surchit
    преди ден

    How are you defining evolution? You have here demonstrated micro-evolution - evolution within a species: bacteria in and bacteria out. No one has a problem believing there is micro-evolution going on, which creates changes within a species. Sometimes these changes - mutations - are advantageous: longer beaks; stronger muscles; ability to live in a changing environment, such as one that has had antibiotics added to it. Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information, which would be essential for interspecies evolution to occur.

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 3 часа

      @Beaman Surchit i was making a rhetorical exaggeration of his "change in type" argument to demonstrate the absurdity of even that. change in type makes no sense, even if you aren't talking about a fish giving birth to a monkey.

    2. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 16 часа

      @Beaman Surchit "How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species?" It is a new species when people decide it is, but that decision is correlated to the extent of divergence. In bacteria, the delimitation is usually by ecotype (by which Ara-3 should already be a different species) or 3% 16S divergence (by which it should be a new species in another few million generations). But at no point would the descendants of bacteria not be bacteria, because bacteria is a clade, and descendants are always in all of the clades their ancestors were in. "Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens?" Thinking that getting humans is the 'point' of evolution is a radical misunderstanding of the theory. Evolution explains the origins of humans, it doesn't require it. " but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution." Given sufficient accumulation of divergence, you can get extremely modified descendants, which would result in labeling the new population as a different species from the ancestral population. Experimental speciation is well documented and extremely repeatable. "We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues" Casey Luskin is not an expert in any relevant field, EvolutionNews is a crank website, and nonetheless the linked article *still* manages to confirm that you can get new information from mutations. And if mutations can produce new information, as we must now agree they can, and if some fraction of those mutations are beneficial, as is necessarily true, then I'm not sure what you think the problem is. In terms of producing complex features by mutation, you can look at the development of placental viviparity in lizards, happening in real time in the wild. "If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us" The preservation of transitional forms is a question of geology and historical contingency, not biology. Nonetheless, we have excellent fossil sequences for most major transitions of the past 500 million years. And by the way, Darwin went on to say: "On the absence or rarity of transitional varieties. As natural selection acts solely by the preservation of profitable modifications, each new form will tend in a fully-stocked country to take the place of, and finally to exterminate, its own less improved parent or other less-favoured forms with which it comes into competition. Thus extinction and natural selection will, as we have seen, go hand in hand. Hence, if we look at each species as descended from some other unknown form, both the parent and all the transitional varieties will generally have been exterminated by the very process of formation and perfection of the new form." "We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book." Much like understand a book is only easy if you understand the language, understanding evolution is only easy if you understand the underlying chemistry and statistics. At which point, evolution is unmistakable.

    3. Beaman Surchit
      Beaman Surchit
      преди 18 часа

      @zhou sei I wasn't even remotely making such a ludicrous suggestion. edit: I should have added: Ham doesn't either. If you have actually listened to Ham's arguments you were either listening very carelessly; or your comments here are disingenuous at best.

    4. Beaman Surchit
      Beaman Surchit
      преди 18 часа

      ​@Crispr CAS9 "Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations." How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species? "If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution." Pardon me? Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens? I know you're not saying that a bacteria suddenly evolves into a mouse (for example) but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution. "Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition." We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues and problems raised by the theory of evolution, but that would never smooth out our differences. Allow me go there just once and suggest you take a look, from my perspective, at "Can Random Mutations Create New Complex Features? A Response to TalkOrigins". [ evolutionnews (dot) org/2012/06/can_random_muta/ ] This website looks at the science. For me, what it boils down to is obvious observational logic. As Darwin himself questioned: “Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.” Exactly. If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us. We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book. But we can't - it simply isn't there. And it's not in the fossil record either.

    5. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 20 часа

      (assumption) you've fallen victim to ken ham and the whole "change in type" nonsense. you don't see a fish suddenly give birth to a monkey, that's not how evolution works.

  17. عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV Germany
    عائلة عيد ألمانيا Maryam Rose TV Germany
    преди ден

    E.coli is still E.coli

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 20 часа

      what's your point?

  18. OgrAdaY
    OgrAdaY
    преди ден

    Would this be considered gain of function if the e.coli develop a competitive advantage?

  19. Lorenzo
    Lorenzo
    преди ден

    Finally we understand why 42 is the answer

  20. Teflon Pan
    Teflon Pan
    преди ден

    I am not watching Evolution in action. Because bacteria turns resistance against enemies, does not prove a fish turning into a human over billions of years. You just take one truth and stretch it over billions of years. That's not how science works.

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      this one particular experiment doesn't prove that we have a fish as a common ancestor, but it is one small experiment in the grand compendium of observations, confirmed predictions, and handshakes across the aisle between sciences that aren't normally associated with eachother. you have to take the whole, you can't point to one small part of a theory and be like "see? this doesn't prove common descent". well, put it in the bag with whale bones, endogenous retroviruses, and the geological record as it pertains to fossil finds... the picture starts to look pretty complete.

    2. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди ден

      "I am not watching Evolution in action" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  21. ukranaut
    ukranaut
    преди ден

    It's not gonna end well.

  22. 21trips
    21trips
    преди ден

    All those generations and none of them have have grown even as big as an ant? Great evidence against evolution between kinds of living creatures.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди ден

      @mellowfellow14 "It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man" about 4 billion, actually.

    2. mellowfellow14
      mellowfellow14
      преди ден

      @21trips No and you never will, because that isn't evolution through natural selection works; again you show you have no understanding of it. Speciation is a gradual process, it takes thousands if not millions of years, hence you will never see a ''fish becoming a dog'' or any other creationist nonsense. It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man, yet you are expecting a bacteria to ''evolve into a lizard'' in a few decades? Nonsense.

    3. 21trips
      21trips
      преди ден

      @mellowfellow14 Natural selection works really well within a kind of living creatures but you have never seen one kind of living creature turn into another kind of living creature from natural selection like from bacteria to a lizard or fish or insect, have you?

    4. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди ден

      " Great evidence against evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "between kinds of living creatures." Kinds is a nonsense word without scientific validity, and evolution prohibits one extant life producing another extant life form. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline your ignorance of the subject.

    5. mellowfellow14
      mellowfellow14
      преди ден

      How to show everyone you have no understanding of evolution through natural selection in 1 sentence.

  23. JD
    JD
    преди ден

    That commercial at the end just wiped out my following.

  24. Oren Bartal
    Oren Bartal
    преди ден

    Finally we know what 42 really means - It's the number of days it takes e.coli to expand enough to fill the entire observable universe

  25. Not Rian's Luke
    Not Rian's Luke
    преди ден

    30 seconds into the video, and all I can think is: "Okay, but is it a good idea to forcibly evolve e-coli bacteria into being resistant to antibiotics?"

  26. James Rodwell
    James Rodwell
    преди ден

    The bad computer universally pinch because parade rheologically injure as a freezing shorts. quiet, splendid heart

  27. Tungkung Langit
    Tungkung Langit
    преди ден

    Generation 999k: The bacteria started behaving like nanobots.

  28. Urban Explorer
    Urban Explorer
    преди ден

    I have a doubt, have they ever checked for a bacteria that could survive the autoclave?? I mean there could be a bacteria that might have mutated so much that it might have gained ability to survive the autoclave.....

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      some spores can, but i wonder if a tardigrade might?

  29. Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno
    преди ден

    Grow bacteria that eat plastic.

  30. Vorpal Inferno
    Vorpal Inferno
    преди ден

    Imagine doing this to humans. Welcome to grimdark.

  31. Illyasviel von Einzbern
    Illyasviel von Einzbern
    преди ден

    Did you ask the professor how lethal those E.Coli bacteria are if they were to infect a human?

  32. Samu Salla
    Samu Salla
    преди ден

    how come no one is talking about how beautiful that lab is

  33. Michael Chen
    Michael Chen
    преди ден

    Just curious, is there any risk of the super-evolved E. Coli infecting the scientists?

  34. Purvang Vasani
    Purvang Vasani
    преди 2 дни

    Can we please get a video on lucid dreaming?

  35. Scott Kidder
    Scott Kidder
    преди 2 дни

    Wait, but evolution wouldn’t really happen if you didn’t have the selective pressure of competing with other bacteria for resources. I mean it would, the bacteria would still have mutations, but as long as the those mutations weren’t fatal, the colonies would simply randomly generate new versions but none of them would be selected for. In other words, there wouldn’t really be any “improvement” because there wouldn’t be any need to. What would they be improving at? I guess what I’m saying is that your environment is changing and it’s hard to imagine one in which nothing changed. Even in lab conditions, there’s still selective pressure. And as the colony grows, that pressure increases. So evolution is happening in the colonies not in spite of there being no environmental change in the lab, but because of it. Or are you saying that the environmental change is relatively small in the lab compared to the “wild.” And therefore, we’d expect to see a higher rate of evolutionary adaption in the wild than we would expect in the lab? Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted? It seems to me, nature would find the top best ways to be adapted and they would probably be different. But I also ask the question, is it even possible to keep the environment static and unchanging? And environment with 10 million bacteria in the same media is very different than an environment with 10. Even an environment with 11 bacteria is different than one with 10. So how could you effectively keep the environment the same? Or am I just missing the point? Lol

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 дни

      "Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted?" This one, I believe.

  36. Elu Herrahaz
    Elu Herrahaz
    преди 2 дни

    But why does it stay coli and doesn't evolve into a new species of bacteria?

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 17 часа

      @zhou sei You can use reproductive viability as a metric for species delimitation, but it is extremely problematic. Two populations might be completely interfertile, but never mate in the wild. Or consider ring species fertility.

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      @Crispr CAS9 in organisms with sexual reproduction, don't we just call it a new species once they cannot mate to produce viable offspring?

    3. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 дни

      " evolve into a new species of bacteria?" At the point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species, it will be. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  37. PoM MoM
    PoM MoM
    преди 2 дни

    Horrifying

  38. Poindexter Queue
    Poindexter Queue
    преди 2 дни

    Deliberately creating superbacteria... what could go wrong?

  39. martixy
    martixy
    преди 2 дни

    SCIENCE!

  40. RB 70
    RB 70
    преди 3 дни

    At what point in the experiment did the E. Coli change into a different species of microorganism?

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 дни

      The E coli don't change into a different species. The population diverges and accumulates differences, and at some point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.

  41. Sahnoune Khaled
    Sahnoune Khaled
    преди 3 дни

    its adaptation not evolution

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 17 часа

      @Sahnoune Khaled "especillally by your statement about the definition of species" How do you think bacterial species are delimited? How do you think they SHOULD be delimited? Why?

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      @Sahnoune Khaled we don't yet have a theory on origins of life, afaik... just a bunch of hypotheses, such as 'abiogenesis' that young earth creationists love to think is the "aha gotcha science" moment for some reason.

    3. Sahnoune Khaled
      Sahnoune Khaled
      преди 21 час

      @Crispr CAS9 you had to respect the other opinion im not convinced by your answers especillally by your statement about the definition of species even the scientific who made the experiment didn't pretend that..you dont monopolise the truth ...

    4. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди ден

      @Sahnoune Khaled I said respond to what I said or don't respond at all. Your comment does nothing to address anything I said in my initial comment. Be serious or be silent.

    5. Sahnoune Khaled
      Sahnoune Khaled
      преди ден

      @Crispr CAS9 alright youre 100 percent true and im 100 perpent..false...i only want a answer how the life started from dead matter in the first place..i need 100 % evidence not speculation and unproven theories

  42. David Lee
    David Lee
    преди 3 дни

    Ah a miniverse

  43. Jean d'Arc
    Jean d'Arc
    преди 3 дни

    So let me get this straight... you guys are evolving super hungry, super fast breeding bacteria that aren't fussy eaters :/

  44. ranty13
    ranty13
    преди 3 дни

    But after the equivalent of "1.5 million years" of evolution, they haven't really evolved. They are still E.coli, just better adapted E.coli. They still have the DNA of E.coli. They haven't evolved into worms or another organism. I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 2 дни

      "I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "They haven't evolved into worms or another organism." If they evolved into worms or another organism, that would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution is a fairly clear demonstration that you don't understand what evolution is in the first place.

  45. Climb High
    Climb High
    преди 3 дни

    And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here

    1. Climb High
      Climb High
      преди 7 часа

      @zhou sei calm down China Joe

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      it is my understanding that the side of the lab where they were messing around with coronaviruses from bats had nothing to do with the u.s. funding (which, btw, was signed off on by bush and obama and yes trump). is there good evidence that fauci was doing experiments on bat coronaviruses, or was overseeing that part of the lab?

  46. Paul Doughty
    Paul Doughty
    преди 4 дни

    This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      that's not how evolution works... you'd have to see what happens to your descendants over tens of thousands of generations. pokemon evolve like you are describing, we can't just eat a magic radioactive mushroom and suddenly grow a super useful arm out of our neck...

    2. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 4 дни

      "would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  47. Robert Cummins
    Robert Cummins
    преди 4 дни

    Bounty? Really? Bizarre.

  48. Taliesin River
    Taliesin River
    преди 4 дни

    Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.

  49. Rin倫
    Rin倫
    преди 4 дни

    So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?

  50. Kyle Mecca
    Kyle Mecca
    преди 4 дни

    This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.

    1. Taliesin River
      Taliesin River
      преди 4 дни

      yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.

  51. Marge N.
    Marge N.
    преди 5 дни

    So this is what will actually kill us all?

  52. relentlessmadman
    relentlessmadman
    преди 5 дни

    I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      @relentlessmadman there are brands that do recycled paper for their t.p. and toallas papel.

    2. relentlessmadman
      relentlessmadman
      преди 5 дни

      does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????

  53. Danny Ramirez
    Danny Ramirez
    преди 5 дни

    My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process

    1. Danny Ramirez
      Danny Ramirez
      преди 15 часа

      @zhou sei no i mean genetically. Would there be a generic singularity

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      you mean like the mass of a black hole?

  54. mark green
    mark green
    преди 5 дни

    What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!

    1. mark green
      mark green
      преди 9 часа

      ​@zhou sei Simple, where is the evidence that the London bridge was built by someone maybe it created itself? A creation is evidence on its creator, and the more complex and brilliance of the creation the more the evidence of a powerful creator.

    2. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      where is there evidence of this god fella?

  55. Rhianne Moll
    Rhianne Moll
    преди 5 дни

    Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!

  56. Арсенал
    Арсенал
    преди 5 дни

    11:15 I got goosebumps here.

  57. Rhadoo RootBwoy
    Rhadoo RootBwoy
    преди 5 дни

    Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?

  58. Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
    Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
    преди 6 дни

    gloves??

  59. Heinz Dontbother
    Heinz Dontbother
    преди 6 дни

    @Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.

  60. BP
    BP
    преди 6 дни

    Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…

  61. Tom shiba
    Tom shiba
    преди 6 дни

    would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes

  62. Terry Caldwell
    Terry Caldwell
    преди 6 дни

    The smartest ad integration

  63. chuck sch.
    chuck sch.
    преди 6 дни

    Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D

  64. Matthew Salvatar
    Matthew Salvatar
    преди 6 дни

    Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?

    1. To Serve Man
      To Serve Man
      преди 5 дни

      Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.

  65. Danish
    Danish
    преди 6 дни

    When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?

  66. michaelsimkin
    michaelsimkin
    преди 7 дни

    According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.

    1. zhou sei
      zhou sei
      преди 19 часа

      we cannot predict what will happen with any reliability; we know we came from a common ancestor as did a sheep or a bird, but there isn't some set endpoint to evolve into. ie, these e. coli might evolve into a multicellular organism given enough generations, but we can't know what it will be like at any given generation until we see it.

    2. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 7 дни

      "According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.

  67. erikfinnegan
    erikfinnegan
    преди 7 дни

    Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels - microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.

  68. David Kellen
    David Kellen
    преди 7 дни

    I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...

  69. Tyray3P
    Tyray3P
    преди 7 дни

    It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite

  70. Cedric Velarde
    Cedric Velarde
    преди 7 дни

    1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!

  71. A Real Life Dog
    A Real Life Dog
    преди 8 дни

    Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau

  72. МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
    МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
    преди 8 дни

    *how to create a supervirus*

  73. gyamlj
    gyamlj
    преди 8 дни

    This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 7 дни

      "I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.

  74. Ashethorama
    Ashethorama
    преди 8 дни

    Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute

  75. Seven Ligthson
    Seven Ligthson
    преди 8 дни

    YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!

  76. Christopher Inman
    Christopher Inman
    преди 8 дни

    Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]

  77. maruftim
    maruftim
    преди 8 дни

    Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...

  78. AJ T
    AJ T
    преди 8 дни

    Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?

  79. ZedCactus
    ZedCactus
    преди 9 дни

    This episode was great! Really interesting.

  80. Lief Bamberg
    Lief Bamberg
    преди 9 дни

    disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.

  81. WowZers
    WowZers
    преди 9 дни

    Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate

  82. Rodrigo Segura
    Rodrigo Segura
    преди 9 дни

    42, ¿coincidence? I think not

  83. Frenchnostalgique
    Frenchnostalgique
    преди 9 дни

    Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.

  84. Azurium
    Azurium
    преди 9 дни

    Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."

    1. Azurium
      Azurium
      преди 9 дни

      Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.

  85. Christian412 America
    Christian412 America
    преди 10 дни

    The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 9 дни

      "The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?

  86. SuperSonic Boom
    SuperSonic Boom
    преди 10 дни

    Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.

  87. Michael Kurek
    Michael Kurek
    преди 10 дни

    It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 9 дни

      Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.

  88. Guy Fox
    Guy Fox
    преди 10 дни

    IT'S GOD! LOL

  89. Samaila Abdullahi
    Samaila Abdullahi
    преди 10 дни

    I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on BGvideo who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.

  90. RD2564
    RD2564
    преди 10 дни

    Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.

  91. David Blank
    David Blank
    преди 10 дни

    So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???

    1. Crispr CAS9
      Crispr CAS9
      преди 10 дни

      "So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.

  92. DeadEndFrog
    DeadEndFrog
    преди 11 дни

    well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)

  93. lalit pal
    lalit pal
    преди 11 дни

    I see you evolving from young youtuber :D

  94. wildstar2424242424
    wildstar2424242424
    преди 11 дни

    A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet

  95. Mike Tacos
    Mike Tacos
    преди 11 дни

    13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.

  96. Mike Tacos
    Mike Tacos
    преди 11 дни

    Then someone breaks the glass.

  97. Chris Koll
    Chris Koll
    преди 11 дни

    I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...

    1. mwuaha
      mwuaha
      преди 11 дни

      what?

  98. Truther
    Truther
    преди 12 дни

    Are tests like this being done on viruses?